FEM Glossary 2023

Higg Facility Environmental Module (FEM) – Glossary

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TermsDescription of termsSourceReference
Absolute reductionsReduction in actual utility consumption (e.g. kWh of electricity used, or cubic meter of water used for the whole facility within a calendar year) or pollution generated (e.g. kg of hazardous waste for the whole facility within a calendar year) regardless of facility size, production volumes, production hours, raw material usage or other business metricsHigg Index 
Air emission inventoryAn inventory of emissions to air is a detailed list of the emissions and their sources, it should include the following information for each emission source: • The pollutants known or likely to be present • The quantity emitted (if known or estimated) • The location of, for example, the stack, vent etc • Any control devices (e.g. abatement equipment) installed • Frequency of monitoring; and • Whether the particular emission is legally regulated.Higg Index 
Air pollution controlAir pollution control refer to steps taken to maintain a standard of purity of air for good public health; for protection of plant and animal life, and property; for visibility; and for safe ground and air transportation.OECDLink
All waste streamAll waste stream means all the wastes produced on-site including wastes generated from manufacturing the product, office use, waste produced by workers at the canteen, dormitory, and waste produced by contractors coming on-site to perform a service.Higg 
Alternative assessmentIt is a process for identifying alternatives (chemical or non-chemical) to a chemical of concern, screening out equally or more hazardous alternatives, and selecting an alternative that is technically and economically viable and does not have the potential for causing significant environmental or human health impacts.OIA – Chemicals Management Framework Glossary 
BarriersAny coatings and/or laminations used on textiles or footwear products. Barriers may be bicomponent (two or more materials), microporous (material with pore diameters of less than 2nm) or monolithic (single covering without seams or joints).Higg Index 
BaselineBaseline is the initial metric for the utility used to be improved from.  The initial metric is the beginning measure taken to establish a stable starting point to evaluate improvement against. It must reference a specific time frame from which the baseline was calculated, typically annual consumption.  Identifying any unique variables makes the metric more accurate.Higg Index 
Best Available Technology (BAT)In the FEM, the concept of Best Available Technology (BAT) is defined as the most effective and advanced technology including materials, processes, and equipment that is currently available that will result in reduction of pollutants emitted and minimizing impacts to the environment.Higg Index 
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)Biological Oxygen Demand (or Biochemical Oxygen Demand) (BOD) is an indicator of the level of organic matter in the water and, hence, the rate at which oxygen in the water is used up as the organic matter is consumed by organisms in the water. Generally, the lower the BOD, the better the water/ wastewater quality.Higg Index & GSCP 
BiomassBiomass is biological material from living or recently living organisms. Sustainable biomass sources are:   • Energy crops that do not compete with food crops for land; high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications. • Agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting or processing, such as wheat straw or rice husk. • Sustainably-harvested wood and forest residues. • Waste woodHigg Index 
Biomass- Without sustainably sourced biomass certificationAny biomass that is not certified through a sustainably sourced biomass program.Higg Index 
Biomass- Sustainably sourced with certificationsAny biomass that has supporting certification documentation from a sustainably sourced biomass program (e.g., Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), ISCC Biomass Certification, Sustainable Biomass Program (SBP) Certification, Better Biomass Certification, Country Specific Certification, etc.)Higg Index 
Black WaterBlack water is defined in the FEM as wastewater from toilets which can contain pathogens, feces, urine, and other sanitary waste from flushed toilets.Higg Index 
Blue WaterBlue water is fresh surface and groundwater, in other words, the water in freshwater lakes, rivers and aquifers. Blue water sources are : Surface Water ,Groundwater, Municipal Blue, Water, Municipal Water (Origin Unknown), Brackish surface water/seawater, Condensate from External Steam Source, RainwaterHigg Index 
Brackish surface water/seawaterBrackish water is water in which the concentration of salts is relatively high (over 10,000 mg/l). Seawater has a typical concentration of salts above 35,000 mg/l.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Carbon offsetsCarbon offsets are market-based instruments that are designed to lower the amount of GHG in the atmosphere (mainly CO2). Offsets provide credits that can be purchased and applied to reduce an organization’s carbon footprint by accounting for CO2 emission reductions that occur elsewhere. Carbon offsets fund specific projects that either lower CO2 emissions, or sequester CO2, meaning they take some CO2 out of the atmosphere and store it. Common examples of projects include reforestation, construction of renewable energy infrastructure, carbon-storing agricultural practices, and waste and landfill management.Higg Index 
CAS numberCAS Registry Numbers (often referred to as CAS RN® or CAS Numbers) are universally used to provide a unique, unmistakable identifier for chemical substances. A CAS Registry Number itself has no inherent chemical significance but provides an unambiguous way to identify a chemical substance or molecular structure when there are many possible systematic, generic, proprietary or trivial names.CASLink
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is an indicator of the level of organic matter and chemicals in the water and, hence, the rate at which oxygen in the water is used up as the organic matter and chemicals are consumed. Generally, the lower the COD the better the water/ wastewater quality.GSCP 
Circular economyA circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose) in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life.WRAPLink
Climate changeClimate change refers to any long-term change in Earth’s climate, or in the climate of a region or city. This includes warming, cooling and changes besides temperature.NASALink
Coalcommercial mix includes all types of traditional coal (e.g., anthracite, bituminous, etc.)  
Coal Water SlurryCoal Water Slurry is a combustible mixture of fine coal particles suspended in water used as fuel source.  
Commodity ChemicalSingle substances or chemical compounds whose chemical structure is well-known, and their use is to create conditions for a process (such as acid, alkaline, oxidizing, reducing, solubilizing conditions). They are produced in high volumes with low prices and do not have a brand name but are known by their common chemical names (for example, Acetic Acid). The chemical structure and purity of two commodity chemicals produced by different manufacturers can be the same and can be interchangeable. They are generally sold on technical specifications (such as purity) and are not designed for a unique/special property or effect nor require any scientific research in their development. Usually, commodity chemicals either get reacted in the process (for example Sodium Hydroxide or Sodium Hydrosulphite) or remain in the effluent after the process (for example Common Salt or Glauber’s Salt used in reactive dyeing of cotton)ZDHC Performance Incheck GuidelinesLink
Condensate from external steam sourceWater that is generated from the condensate of steam sources that are not located at the facility.  
Domestic Energy useEnergy that is consumed in non-production related areas and/or buildings such as employee washrooms, domestic only wastewater treatment plant, or office areas separated from production, canteen and kitchen, security posts, external lighting (e.g. roadway or landscape lighting), medical center, etc.Higg Index 
Domestic WastewaterWastewater originating from domestic/sanitary usage such as toilets, bathing, personal laundry and kitchens.Higg Index 
Domestic water

Water used for washrooms, sanitation, food preparation, landscape irrigation, non-contact cooling etc.

Higg Index 
Downcycle wastePre or post-consumer wastes are recycled and processed to produce material or products of lesser economic value (e.g., recycled textiles used for rags, carpet padding, or sound insulation products).Higg Index 
Downstream Scope 3 Emission Sources1. Downstream transportation and distribution 2. Processing of sold products 3. Use of sold products 4. End-of-life treatment of sold products 5. Downstream leased assets 6. Franchises 7. InvestmentsGHG protocolLink
Emergency Response Plan (ERP)An Emergency Response Plan is a plan of action for the efficient deployment and coordination of services, agencies and personnel to provide the earliest possible response to an emergency.WREMLink
Emission from Facility OperationsFor the Higg FEM, these include emissions from sources that support facility operations and are not the direct result of production processes. Emissions from facility operations are typically emitted through point source or mobile emissions sources. Examples include boilers, generators, heating and cooling systems (e.g., combustion heating, refrigerant-containing cooling equipment), and combustion engines.Higg Index 
Emissions from Production:For the Higg FEM, these include emissions from sources that are related to production processes. Emissions from production are typically emitted through point sources or as fugitive emissions. Examples include production processes that use chemicals (e.g., solvents, adhesives, printing, dyeing) processes that emit dust/particulates, products of combustion, or other hazardous or toxic air pollutants.Higg Index 
Energy (indirect)Energy (indirect) can be purchased from public and private utilities in the form of electricity, steam, or heat.Higg Index 
Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs)Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs) is a general term for a variety of market-based instruments that represent how energy is generated and ownership of the attributes of that energy. The name and specific requirements for EACs are typically defined by the jurisdiction or program under which they are issued. EACs can be issued as part of government initiatives or be offered by independent third-party providers such as the EAC programsHigg Index 
Energy AuditAn energy audit is a systematic review of a facility’s energy use to identify areas of inefficiency and opportunities for improvement. An energy audit uses the principles of effective energy management systems and audit processes, such as ASHRAE Standard 211-2018, or ISO 50002 to help identify inefficiencies and define energy strategies for reducing energy consumption and operating costs.  
Energy carrierSubstance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or physical processes.ISOLink
Energy Recovery – Residual Management (e.g., Physical / Chemical / Biological Treatment)Energy Recovery as a form of residual management, ie. Sludge Treatment that leads to Biogas Generation, heat generation from biological treatment (composting), energy generation from any such activity that does not include “Incineration”Higg Index 
Energy Recovery (e.g., Incineration with energy recovery for Recyclables)Energy recovery from the process of incinerating of recyclable waste. Note: Material recovery is the preferred method for recyclable wastes. Note: Recycling infrastructure and capabilities may differ among regions and countries.Higg Index 
Environment Impact AssessmentAn environmental impact assessment is a comprehensive review of all inputs and outputs of facility operations and production processes to identify potential impact areas, including impact areas like energy, water, waste, etc as well as other impact areas such as legal compliance, environmental noise and vibrationHigg Index 
Environmental Management SystemA management system is a set of interrelated elements used to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives. An environmental management system must consist of: a. Environmental Policy b. Planning: environmental risk assessment, setting objectives and targets c. Implementation and operation: operational procedures; adequate training; documentation and its control d. Checking: monitoring and measurement, audit and inspections e. Management ReviewGSCP, Higg Index based on ISO 14001:2004 
Environmental policyThe policy describes the site’s activities, products, and services including a commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution, as well as a commitment to comply with legal and other requirements that relate to the significant environmental aspects identified for the site. The policy should set out the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets.Higg Index 
Final disposalFinal disposal means the final step to transform or destroy your waste.  If your contractor is only collecting your waste and selling it to another company, the final disposal will be the last company that handles your waste by recycling or incinerating or treating (physical or chemical treatment) or landfilling your waste. This can be controlled in the factory by checking the waste collection area and confirming that sorting is well-managed.Higg Index 
FoamsA solid “open cell” or “closed cell” foam material commonly used in packaging and footwear. Includes EVA, PE, and PU foam.  
Fossil fuelsFossil fuels are coal, oil and natural gas. They are derived from the remains of ancient plant and animal life.OECDLink
Fresh surface waterSurface water is naturally occurring water on the Earth’s surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams. (Fresh water underground is called groundwater and oceans are not freshwater). Fresh water sources are generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts (below 1,000 mg/l) and other total dissolved solids.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
FreshwaterThe most common freshwater use is potable municipal or city water (drinking water).  Other sources can be from ground water wells, surface waters (lakes, rivers, and streams), rain water, and even condensate when collected from steam which is supplied to the business from an external source.Higg Index 
Freshwater FootprintFreshwater Footprint is defined as the total volume of all freshwater used to produce goods and services within a defined time period.  This includes freshwater use in canteens, dormitories, landscape irrigation, vehicle washing, etc. – all freshwater use.  The number represents the environmental impact as it pertains to freshwater use.  A sustainable business should strive to minimize freshwater footprint.  Many ways can be used to reduce freshwater use, including: fixing leaks, manufacturing process efficiency improvements, technology upgrades, reuse, and recyclingHigg Index 
Fuel OilBlended includes all types of fuel oils (e.g., furnace oil, bunker fuel, etc.)  
FugitiveFugitive emissions are defined as those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally-equivalent openingUS EPALink
Global Harmonization System (GHS)GHS stands for the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. GHS defines and classifies the hazards of chemical products and communicates health and safety information on labels and safety data sheets). The goal is that the same set of rules for classifying hazards, and the same format and content for labels and safety data sheets (SDS) will be adopted and used around the world. An international team of hazard communication experts developed GHS.CCOHSLink
Greenhouse gases emissions (GHG)Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. The primary human activity affecting the amount and rate of climate change is greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The most common GHG, regulated under the Kyoto Protocol and are usually accounted in GHG inventories, are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).   A site’s GHG emissions, sometimes called ‘carbon footprint,’ refer to the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere as a result of the site’s activities, whether from energy use, refrigerant use and wastewater treatment or other. The scope of measuring and tracking of a site’s GHG emissions is defined by different international accounting standards like the ISO14064, GHG Protocol – A Corporate and Accounting Standard (Revised Edition), etc. Local GHG accounting requirements and standards may be available.Adapted from US EPA and GHG Protocol 
Grey WaterGrey water is water that has been polluted by human activity (e.g., industrial and/ or domestic sources).   Grey water sources are: Municipal Grey Water, Recycled Water, Reuse Water, Treated Wastewater from External Source, Untreated Wastewater from External Sources (treated internally)  
GroundwaterWater in soil beneath the soil surface, usually under conditions where the pressure in the water is greater than the atmospheric pressure, and the soil voids are substantially filled with the water. Non-renewable groundwater is generally located at deeper depths and cannot be replenished easily or is replenished over very long periods of time. They are sometimes referred to as “fossil” groundwater sources.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Hazardous or Toxic Air Pollutants (HAP/TAP)Hazardous or Toxic Air Pollutants (HAP/TAP) Are defined as compounds that are known or suspected to cause significant harmful impacts to human health or the environment.Higg Index 
Hazardous wasteHazardous waste is waste that could cause harm to public health and/or the environment because of its chemical, physical, or biological characteristics (e.g., it is flammable, explosive, toxic, radioactive, or infectious). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines hazardous waste as “waste that is dangerous or potentially harmful to our health or the environment. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, or gases, or sludge.US EPA 
Higg FEM TrainerAn Individual qualified to provide Higg Index FEM Training.Higg FEM Training ProgramLink
Incinerated with energy recoveryMaterials that are collected and intentionally allocated to incineration, gasification, anaerobic digestion, or other technology that recovers the inherent useful energy of the material. Methods that prevent environmental impacts and maximize resource utilization are required.Higg Index 
IncinerationMaterials that are collected and managed through an incineration process that meets international standards.Higg Index 
Incineration with energy recovery for Non-Recyclables onlyEnergy recovery from the process of incinerating non-recyclable waste. Note: Recycling infrastructure and capabilities may differ among regions and countries.Higg Index 
Industrial WastewaterWater that has been used for manufacturing processes and no longer meets the quality standard for beneficial use (e.g., wastewater from production, lubrication, cooling, maintenance, cleaning of production machines, etc.)Higg Index 
Insulation MaterialsSubstance used to reduce or prevent the transmission of heat, sound or electricity. Insulation materials can be natural (e.g. duck/goose down, or wool) or synthetic (e.g. polyester insulation).  
LandfillMaterials that are collected and managed through a landfilling process that meets international standards.Higg Index 
Landfill/Dumping with No Control MeasuresIn the Higg FEM, landfill/dumping with no controls aligns with the ZDHC Disposal Pathways definitions for landfills with limited or no control measures as defined in the ZDHC Sludge Management Document Version 1.0. As described below:   Landfills with Limited Control Measures are landfill types that do not meet the description requirements specified in the Landfill with Significant Control Measures section. The permeability, leachate and gas control, and documentation are generally less restrictive. Leachate control may be non-existent or consist of simple collection and drain to local sewer lines. Gases may be vented versus stored, treated and used. Monitoring requirements for these types of landfills are less stringent – requiring less frequent sampling, inspections, and records for a shorter time depending on the local laws and regulations.   Landfills with No Control Measures are landfills constructed with no control measures. Any landfill that has not been designed to contain waste, limit percolation, or control leachates from exposure or entering the environment is considered a landfill with no control measure. This includes dump piles and holes with no lining or packing to limit waste exposure to the ground and/or groundwater. There may be few or no monitoring requirements for these types of landfills. In many cases, these types of landfills are constructed by simply digging a hole and then filling the hole with waste, or it may consist of filling a naturally occurring depression with waste.Higg IndexLink
LeachateLeachate is the liquid (e.g.: rain) that drains or ‘leaches’ (e.g. water contained in food waste) from waste when water percolates through any waste. It varies widely in composition regarding the age of the waste and the type of waste. It usually contains both dissolved and suspended material.Higg Index 
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic approach to evaluate the environmental footprint of a product. This evaluation goes beyond just assessing chemical hazards and risk and is a more comprehensive approach to sustainability which looks at the life cycle impacts within and beyond the facility. LCAs should be conducted by qualified individuals in accordance with a recognized LCA framework such as ISO14040:2006.  
Location-based emission factorsLocation-based emission factors use the average emission factor for the energy/emission source (e.g. regional or national emission factors)Higg Index 
Manufacturing Restricted Substance Lists (MRSLs)The ZDHC MRSL is a list of chemical substances subject to a usage ban (see Usage Ban, page 2). The MRSL applies to chemicals used in facilities that process materials and trim parts for use in apparel and footwear.  Chemicals in the ZDHC MRSL include solvents, cleaners, adhesives, paints, inks, detergents, dyes, colorants, auxiliaries, coatings and finishing agents used during raw material production, wet-processing, maintenance, wastewater treatment, sanitation and pest control.ZDHCLink
Market-based emission factorsMarket-based emission factors consider contractual arrangements under which the organization procures power from specific sources (e.g. fossil fuels, renewable). These emission factors are typically specified in Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs), contracts such as a power purchase agreement (PPA), to purchase electricity from a specified generating facility, or provided as Supplier-Specific Emission Factors.Higg Index 
Material wasteThese wastes may include scrap generated during the production or leftover / unused. Some example of material waste in Apparel, Textiles, and Footwear industry (not exhaustive) are: • Leather (synthetic or natural) • Glass • Fabric (Cotton or Nylon or blended) • Polyurethane Foams (laminated or unlaminated) • Lining materials • Rubber • EVA • Lining materials • Mixed material waste.Higg Index 
Material ProcessesRefer Definition Table below Link
Mobile Emissions SourceMobile emission sources are those that are non-stationary sources of emission. Examples include powered motor vehicles (e.g., forklifts, trucks, passenger vehicles), heavy machinery (e.g., mobile cranes or lifts), small engines (e.g., landscaping equipment).Higg Index 
Municipal Blue WaterWater provided by a municipality or other public provider that is generated by blue water.  
Municipal Blue water (Origin unknown)Water provided by a municipality or other public provider with unknown origin (e.g., blue, or grey water)  
Municipal Grey WaterWater provided by a municipality or other public provider that is generated by grey water.  
Municipal waterWater provided by a municipality or other public provider.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Non-Hazardous wastesDiscarded materials from the consumption of goods and services and the manufacture of goods (e.g. cloth, leather, plastic, and paper or packaging waste. Non-hazardous waste usually includes non-hazardous production waste and domestic waste. Non-hazardous waste, such as food waste or plastic waste can still pose contamination and fire risks if not properly managed.Higg Index 
Non-valorized disposal – Other TreatmentAny disposal method that does not recover usable materials or attributes of the waste such as converting them into more useful by products like raw materials, fuels, or other sources of energy.Higg Index 
Non-valorized disposal – Responsibly Managed Landfills (for waste that cannot be managed in any of the options under Preferred options or Less Preferred Options)In the Higg FEM, responsibly managed landfills aligns with the ZDHC Disposal Pathways definitions for landfills with significant control measures as defined in the ZDHC Sludge Management Document Version 1.0. available here: https://www.roadmaptozero.com/output, and as described below:   Landfills with Significant Control Measures are landfills that control both leachate and gas produced from the materials placed in the landfill and are engineered to store waste in a manner that is safe to the surrounding environment. For purposes of the WW Guideline, significant control measures are defined as: Lined landfill such that the permeability of no more than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec is achieved. This is most often achieved using a synthetic composite liner on top of a packed natural clay liner but can also be achieved through two synthetic liners.   Leachate is collected above the liner and removed for proper treatment and disposal. Leak detection and collection is implemented beneath the primary liner and above the secondary liner.   Gas produced from aerobic and anaerobic decomposition is collected and safely used or disposed of. This gas is primarily carbon dioxide or methane but can include sulphurous compounds. Depending on the content of the gas, carbon dioxide can be vented directly to the atmosphere or collected, filtered, and used beneficially.   Monitoring and documentation are maintained for the life of the landfill.     Landfills with Limited Control Measures are landfill types that do not meet the description requirements specified in the Landfill with Significant Control Measures section. The permeability, leachate and gas control, and documentation are generally less restrictive. Leachate control may be non-existent or consist of simple collection and drain to local sewer lines. Gases may be vented versus stored, treated and used. Monitoring requirements for these types of landfills are less stringent – requiring less frequent sampling, inspections, and records for a shorter time depending on the local laws and regulations.Higg Index 
Normalized dataNormalized data includes a comparison of totals or usage data against a predefined variable (or set of variables), e.g. kWh of electricity used per employee on-site, kg of hazardous waste per unit of production etc. An organization can decide whether absolute or normalized data are going to be the most appropriate and representative data to collate/report. Within each of the performance areas discussed in this document there are examples of variables against which data can be normalizedGSCP 
Normalized reductionsReduction in actual utility consumption (e.g. average kWh of electricity used, or cubic meter of water used per employee on-site within a calendar year)/pollution generated (e.g. average kg of hazardous waste per unit of production within a calendar year) that has been normalized to a business metric (e.g. units or mass of production, unit revenue, unit gross sales, unit turnover, full-time employee equivalent, square foot) when compared to normalized utility/pollution generated in a base year. To calculate a normalized value, measure utility/pollution generated in a given time period and divide by the chosen business metric. For example, a normalized waste generation can be calculated as follows: 10,000 kg waste ÷ 5,000 garments = 2kg waste/garment.  
Off-site wastewater treatmentOff-site wastewater treatment is a third-party enterprise or organization who provides wastewater treatment service for more than two pollutant discharging entities by collecting their wastewater, and the wastewater discharged directly to the environment should meet with the relevant limits. The off-site treatment can be public wastewater treatment facility, regional wastewater treatment facility (i.e. industrial park, industry area etc.)Higg Index 
Offsite incineration without energy recovery for Non-RecyclablesIncineration of non-recyclable wastes offsite at a third-party facility that does not recover energy from the incineration process.Higg Index 
Offsite incineration without energy recovery for RecyclablesIncineration of recyclable wastes offsite at a third-party facility that does not recover energy from the incineration process.Higg Index 
On-site wastewater treatmentOn-site wastewater treatment is the wastewater treatment plant used and managed by the factory only. After being treated by the on-site treatment, the wastewater can meet with relevant limits and be directly discharged into the environment, or into an Off-site 3rd party treatment plant (known as partial onsite treatment).Higg Index 
Onsite incineration without energy recovery for Non-RecyclablesIncineration of non-recyclable wastes onsite at the facility that does not recover energy from the incineration process.Higg Index 
Onsite Incineration without energy recovery for RecyclablesIncineration of recyclable wastes onsite at the facility that does not recover energy from the incineration process.Higg Index 
Open burningOpen burning is outdoor burning of wastes such as lumber, scrapped cars, textiles, sawdust and so forth.OECDLink
PermitPermit is defined as all documents required to comply and submit to the government, including but not limited to governmental permits, authorizations, licenses, registrations, certificates, annual government reports and registration of specific chemicals use.Higg Index 
Personal protective equipmentPersonal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to hazards that cause serious workplace injuries and illnesses. These injuries and illnesses may result from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment may include items such as gloves, safety glasses and shoes, ear plugs or muffs, hard hats, respirators, or coveralls, vests and full body suits.US Department of laborLink
Point SourceAir flow which is actively controlled and directed (e.g., by fan and exhaust ducting) into the atmosphere from a single stationary fixed source such as stack or vent. Examples include boiler exhaust stack, the exhaust stack of a local ventilation system used to capture emissions from processes that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Higg Index 
Preventative maintenancePreventative maintenance (or preventive maintenance) is maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to lessen the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down unexpectedly.FiixLink
Produced/process waterWater which, during extraction or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material (e.g. crude oil or a by-product from sugar cane crushing), intermediate product, finished product, by-product, or waste product. Note this also includes reused / recycled water.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Production Energy useEnergy that is directly or indirectly consumed in production related activities or production areas such as production equipment operations, onsite energy generations for production (e.g. steam or electricity), industrial wastewater treatment plant, production area lighting, heating, ventilation and cooling, etc.Higg Index 
RainwaterIf a company is managing rainwater, either to harvest and use, or to prevent flooding for example, they should try to estimate and disclose it as withdrawal from the hydrological system. This helps companies better understand their water dependency and risks.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Rainwater HarvestingRainwater harvesting is the collection the run-off from a structure (e.g., roof) or other impervious surface in order to store it for later use  
RecycleRequires the waste to be re-processed so as to obtain a product, material or substance whether for the original or other purposes. It does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operation. For example: Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different in form from their original state. For instance, this could mean melting down soft drink bottles and then casting them as plastic chairs and tables. Plastic used for playground surfaces or traffic cones Padding/stuffing used for furniture, mattresses, blankets, toysHigg Index 
Recycle waste(including Upcycle)Pre or post-consumer wastes are reprocessed to produce new items of equal (or better) quality (e.g., textile to textile recycling or processing plastic bottles into fabric).Higg Index 
Recycled Domestic WastewaterRecycled domestic wastewater is defined as domestic wastewater that has been treated using physical, chemical, and/or any additional treatment processes to meet a quality which allows the water to be used again for domestic uses such as landscape irrigation, toilets.  
Recycled Industrial WastewaterRecycled industrial wastewater is defined as process wastewater that has been treated using physical, chemical, and/or any additional treatment processes to meet a quality which allows the water to be used again in a production process. For example, wastewater that has gone through a membrane filtration process and used back in the industrial operations is considered recycled water. This does not include water cycled in operations such as cooling towers and non-contact heat exchange operations or water that is recycled and used for domestic uses such as landscape irrigation.  
Recycled WaterRecycled Process Water: treated effluent used again in main process Reused Water: treated effluent used in other areas except recycled water such as toilets or landscaping   Recycled water is the reuse of wastewater that has been treated to remove solids and certain impurities to meet water quality standards associated with the designated application.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Renewable energyThis relates to energy generated by a renewable source (i.e. source which is not depleted or used up as it is naturally replenished. Renewable sources can either be managed so that they last forever, or so that their supply is not significantly impacted.   Unlike fossil fuels, most renewable energy sources do not release carbon dioxide and other air pollutants as by-products into the atmosphere. As the amount of fossil fuel resources on Earth decreases, it is becoming increasingly important to find and utilize renewable energy sources. Examples include: solar, biofuels, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, tidal and wave.GSCP 
Restricted Substance Lists (RSLs)A list, compiled by a business, trade group or other organization, of chemicals (aka chemical substances) to be actively managed and informed on. An RSL may contain chemicals for controlled use, targeted for elimination/substitution, and those that may be totally banned or may be regulated. (e.g., American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) RSL)OIA – Chemicals Management Framework Glossary 
ReuseMeans checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be re-used without any other preprocessing whether for the original or other purposes. For example:   Chemical supplier can reuse the chemical container for filling them up with the same chemical. Fabric leftover can be reused in another factory. Rechargeable batteries can be reused many timesHigg Index 
Reuse wastePre or post-consumer wastes are reused to make new or second hand products without modification or additional manufacturing steps before using the waste.Higg Index 
Reuse waterWastewater discharged from one process that is used directly in another process without treatment. This does not include water cycled in operations such as cooling towers and non-contact heat exchange operations.  
Rubber materialA tough, flexible, highly resilient, waterproof material. Natural rubber is produced using an organic compound (isoprene) usually harvested in the form of latex from rubber trees. A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer (polymer with elastic properties).  
Safety Data Sheets (SDS)SDS (also called material safety data sheet (MSDS) or production safety data sheet (PSDS)) is an important component of product stewardship and occupational safety and health. It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with a substance in a safe manner and should include information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.Higg Index 
Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi)The Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). has established procedures for the commitment, submission, validation, and approval of targets, which generally includes: – Company commitment to setting Science-Based Targets in line with the SBTi. Formal commitment to the SBTi is required (i.e., submitting the commitment letter and paying the applicable fees) – Setting your company’s GHG target and having it validated and approved by the SBTi.Higg IndexLink
Scope 1 emissionsDirect GHG emissions occur from sources that are owned or controlled by the company, for example, emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles, etc.; emissions from chemical production in owned or controlled process equipment.GHG protocolLink
Scope 2 emissionsScope 2 accounts for GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the company. Purchased electricity is defined as electricity that is purchased or otherwise brought into the organizational boundary of the company. Scope 2 emissions physically occur at the facility where electricity is generated.GHG protocolLink
Scope 3 emissionsAll other indirect GHG emissions that occur as a result of an organization’s activities but are not classified as scope 1 or scope 2 emissions. Scope 3 emissions are typically associated with activities and sources that are behind a company’s immediate control or ownership but are part of its value chain.GHG protocolLink
Septic SystemSeptic systems are underground wastewater treatment structures that use a combination of natural/primary processes to treat wastewater. The process typically involves solids settling within the septic tank and ends with wastewater being discharged to the soil via a drainfield.Higg Index 
StakeholdersStakeholders are defined broadly as those groups or individuals: (a) that can reasonably be expected to be significantly affected by the organization’s activities, products, and/or services; or (b) whose actions can reasonably be expected to affect the ability of the organization to successfully implement its strategies and achieve its objectives.GRI G3 2001 
Standard Allowed Minute (SAM) or Standard Minute Value (SMV)Standard Minute Value, or SMV, is the time value arrived at for a task based on the average rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over exertion provided that they know and adhere to the specified method and provided that they are motivated to apply themselves to their work. (ILO)   Note that SMV is often used interchangeably with Standard Allowed Minute, or SAM.International Labour OrganizationIntroduction to Work Study, 4th ed.
StormwaterWater that originates from precipitation (e.g., rainwater) that accumulates on and runs off roofs, hard standing surfaces, car parks, etc. (sometimes referred to as surface water run‐off)Higg Index 
SubcontractorA separate business entity used to perform a specific process or manufacturing step to produce a final product such as garment dyeing, embroidery, and screen-printing tasks, etc.Higg Index 
Synthetic leather materialsA synthetic (man-made and typically petroleum-based) material used as a substitute for leather.  
TargetA formal target here refers to a quantified performance requirement of the site’s annual utility use of a particular utility source. A formal target must:   1) include a definite start date (i.e., “baseline”) of target, the measurement unit, and the baseline consumption (i.e. m3/year at 2010 baseline) 2) include an end date of the target, meaning the intended completion of the required reductions; and 3) include an exact reduction quantity, expressed as a number (e.g. reduce by 1 million m3) or a percentage (e.g. reduce by 5%). 4) be relevant to reducing the site’s utility use (e.g. focuses on the most significant utility uses at the site)Higg Index 
Total suspended solids (TSS)A measure of the suspended solids in wastewater, effluent, or water bodies, determined by tests for “total suspended non-filterable solids”.OECDLink
Treated Wastewater from External SourceWastewater that has been discharged and treated by an external source (e.g., other manufacturing facility) using physical, chemical, and/or any additional treatment processes to meet a quality which allows the water to be used again in a process.  
UnitsUnits refer to common consistent units.  Examples: If dyeing or using wet processes proper units would be volume/mass. For finished goods, proper units are volume/piece.Higg Index 
Untreated Wastewater from External Sources (treated internally)Wastewater that has been discharged by an external source (e.g., other manufacturing facility) and treated at your facility using physical, chemical, and/or any additional treatment processes to meet a quality which allows the water to be used again in a process.  
UpcyclingUpcycling is the process of transforming by-products, waste materials, useless and/or unwanted products into new materials or products of better quality or for better environmental valueHigg Index 
Upstream Scope 3 Emission Sources1. Purchased goods and services 2. Capital goods 3. Fuel- and energy-related activities (Not included in scope 1 or scope 2) 4. Upstream transportation and distribution 5. Waste generated in operations 6. Business travel 7. Employee commuting 8. Upstream leased assetsGHG protocolLink
Verification – OnsiteWhen an SAC approved verifier conducts a verification by entering onto the manufacturer premises and completes the verification in person.SAC Verification Program 
Verification – OffsiteWhen an SAC approved verifier conducts a verification remotely by, web conference, photo and/or file submitted via e-mails or other means which do not require the verifier to enter onto the manufacturer premises.SAC Verification Program 
Verification Code of ConductThe norms and behaviors expected of an SAC approved verifier during a verification.SAC Verification Program 
Verification Performance Improvement Plan (PIP)The verification result outcome which is a template manufacturers use to help track their continuous improvement.SAC Verification Program 
Verification Person DayThe number of verifiers and number of days it takes to complete the verification process.  For example, 2 man days can be 2 verifiers completing a verification on one day or 1 verifier completing a verification in two days. Both of these scenarios would each equal a total of 2 man days.SAC Verification Program 
Verification ProgramEstablishes the guidelines and protocol for approving verifiers and conducting module verifications.SAC Verification Program 
Verification Program Manager (VPM)An external party to help with scale and expertise to manage the day to day operations of the program. SAC and members will be involved in overseeing the overall health of the program, providing strategic guidance, and building enhancements.SAC Verification Program 
Verifier – GeneralistAn individual qualified to verify Higg Index FEM scores for all facilities that are applicable to only Level 1 chemical management section questions. Except when facilities are classified as not using chemicals in production.SAC Verification Program 
Verifier – Chemical SpecialistAn individual qualified to verify Higg Index FEM scores for all facilities. Must be used to verify facilities where Level 1, 2 and Level 3 chemical management sections apply.SAC Verification Program 
Verifier CriteriaThe set of criteria for which individuals and the companies they work for are vetted against to determine provisional acceptance or denial as an SAC approved verifier.SAC Verification Program 
Verifier ProtocolThe step-by-step guide and set of requirements for verifiers conducting either off-site or on-site verification.SAC Verification ProgramLink
Verifier TrainingRequired training for Verifiers to become eligible to conduct Verification.SAC Verification Program 
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)VOC are defined as organic chemical compounds that under normal conditions are gaseous or can vaporise and enter the atmosphere. The general criteria for determining whether a pollutant is considered a VOC is provided below: – It contains carbon. – Vapor Pressure is > or = 0.01 kPa (~0.075 mmHg) at 20C – Boiling point is < or = 250C at standard pressure of 101.3 kPaHigg Index 
Waste inventoryA waste inventory records information of all waste stream generated on-site, it could include information on: nature of the waste (hazardous/non-hazardous) its source (e.g. process, area) the physical form of the waste (solid, liquid etc.) formal classification code (if applicable) specific handling/ storage arrangements the quantity of waste disposed of/treated the disposal/treatment method (biological, chemical, physical), including any on-site treatment details of waste contractors used and disposal/treatment route (recycled, landfill, incineration)Higg Index & GSCP 
Waste ManifestEPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat or dispose of the hazardous waste.USEPALink
Waste minimizationThe policy and process to have the waste minimization means to reduce the production of waste at society and individual level. The wider part of the aim, which is remarked as waste reduction, is often understood as waste hierarchy.Waste Management ResourcesLink
WastewaterCeres Aqua gauge defines wastewater as “Water that is of no further immediate value to the purpose for which it was used or in the pursuit of which it was produced because of its quality, quantity or time of occurrence.” Cooling water is not considered to be wastewater. Wastewater is also defined as water of a quality that no longer serves a useful purpose for the business and is normally discharged under a permit from the property.CDP Water Reporting GuidanceLink
Wastewater qualityWastewater quality may be measured using many factors, such as suspended solids, reduced biological oxygen demand (BOD) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), metals content, oil/grease content, temperature, pH, etc.   Wastewater quality can be improved through reducing strength/concentration of contamination at the source of generation and should be considered top priority, before targeting to reduce wastewater volume.   Wastewater treatment volume and quality are tightly linked.  It is important to not focus solely on one without understanding how it affects the others.  For instance, if you decrease your wastewater discharge volume, you may inadvertently create wastewater quality that is untreatable (on-site or off-site) and have a net-negative impact. Wastewater generation should be compared between fixed periods so that unusual patterns in generation can be identified.  
Wastewater quality targetA formal target here refers to a quantified performance requirement of the site’s wastewater discharge quality. A formal target must: 1) include a definite start date (i.e., “baseline”) of target and the performance level (at least COD, BOD, TSS, temperature, and pH) at baseline date 2) include an end date of the target, meaning the intended completion of the required reductions/ improvements and 3) include an exact reduction quantity or extent, expressed in an absolute number or a percentage. 4) be relevant to improving the site’s wastewater discharge quality. Formal targets in this instance may be absolute or normalized. Absolute = total volume of wastewater discharged regardless of variables (facility size, process volumes, production hours, raw material usage, etc.) Normalized = volume of wastewater discharged relative to some relevant variable (e.g., volume of wastewater discharged per unit of production)Higg Index & GSCP 
Water BalanceA basic water balance is an equation used to describe flow of water into and out of the facility.  The total metered influents would equal to the total of all effluents and water losses.Higg Index 
Water Catchment or Basin areaA water catchment or basin area (sometimes referred to as a watershed or drainage basin) is a geographic area where all water flows to a common point or body of water, such as a lake, river, or aquifer. It consists of streams, rivers, springs or other water collection systems. The health of a water catchment or basin area is important because it serves as a natural area for the management of local water resources, the protection of ecosystems, and the planning of water use and development activities.Higg Index 
Water recyclingWater recycling is a reliable water supply which significantly lowers a facility’s water footprint.  Advances in wastewater treatment technology and recycling ability enable business growth while minimizing environmental impact.  As freshwater supplies around the world experience increased stress due to demand, recycling will play a greater role in overall water supply strategies.Higg Index 
Zero Liquid DischargeZero-liquid discharge (ZLD) is a treatment process that design for no water leaves a facility in liquid form. At a facility with on-site ZLD treatment system, almost all wastewater is treated and recovered such that the only water discharged from the facility exists by evaporation or as moisture in the sludge from treatment plant operations.  A facility is not considered to have a ZLD treatment system if there is a liquid discharge.ZDHC Wastewater GuidelineLink

Material Process Definitions

Process Term Definition
Metal Processing (main)  
Brazing/soldering Brazing joins two metals by heating and melting a filler (alloy) that bonds to the two pieces of metal and joins them, soldering is a lower temperature version of brazing
Casting (plastic/metal) The process in which a liquid material is poured into a mold, containing a hollow cavity of the desired shape and allowed to solidify
Cutting (plastic/metal) Removing material by laser, water jet, plasma or similar
Cutting (Shearing) Application of using two tools, one above the surface and one below, to apply the required amount of pressure to shear and separate the metal into two sections
Deep drawing A sheet metal forming process used where the depth of the shape is greater than the radius of the blank it was initially formed from, requiring the deformation of the metal during the processes
Die Cutting Cutting a shape by a die. The die can be flatbed, rotary and semi rotary
Drawing A sheet metal forming process; a sheet metal blank (usually a disk) is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch
Extrusion (metal) The process of creating objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile by pushing material through a die of the desired cross-section.
Forming (metal/plastic) The shaping of a material without the addition or subtraction of material, using mechanical deformation
Hot & cold forging Forging changes a metal through compression at either cold, warm, or hot temperatures. Cold forging improves the strength by hardening it at room temperature. Hot forging results in optimal yield strength, low hardness, and high ductility by hardening the metal at extremely high temperatures.
Hydroforming A specialized type of die forming that uses a high pressure hydraulic fluid to press room temperature working material into a die
Injection Same as metal injection moulding
Machining (plastic/metal) The process (see also milling/lathing) in which a is cut to a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process
Metal Spinning/turning The process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part
MIM (metal injection moulding) The process in which finely-powdered metal is mixed with binder material to create a “feedstock” that is then injected into a mould to produce a new shape.
Molding (Trims / Components) The process of manufacturing trims/components by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mould or matrix.
Pressing (Trims/Components) Press Trim operations are designed to remove the component and any excess material quickly and accurately
Punching The process of creating a specific shape in an already cut shape. Also common in prototyping and small production runs
Sintering The practice of forming a solid mass of metal, plastic or ceramic using heat and pressure to fuse particles prior to them reaching the point of liquefaction
Stamping (plastic/metal) A process used to convert flat sheets into specific shapes using a die under pressure to cut out the shape, usually the final peice. Common in mass production
Welding (metal) A fabrication process whereby two or more parts are fused together by means of heat, pressure or both forming a join as the parts cool.
Metal processing (further)  
Bending The process by which metal can be deformed when applying force which causes it to bend at an angle and form the anticipated shape, which often results in it being in a ‘V’ or a ‘U’ shape.
Blending / Mixing The process of thoroughly combining different materials to produce a homogenous product
Brushing / Buffing The process of removing scratches and abrasions from a surface, or creating the desired brightness of finish on that surface
Drilling The use of a drill to bore a hole into a material
Gluing (Trims / Components) The application of adhesive to a surface in order to affix trims/components to a product
Heat Treatment (Metals) A process of heating metal, holding it at that temperature, and cooling it back. During the process, the metal part will undergo changes in its mechanical properties
Laser Etching/Engraving A process that creates marks on parts and products by melting or oxidizing the surface
Polishing A finishing method that uses an abrasive material to smooth surfaces. When polished, the surfaces of metallic objects are freed of defects and become more reflective and shiny
Shaping/shaving A form of machining where a tool by a linear motion, shapes the metal part
Tumbling The process of finishing small rough parts of metal en masse by tumbling the parts in a mixer filled with an abrasive particles
Metal processing (Painting/plating)  
Anodizing An electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish
Chrome Plating Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating) is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object
Painting The process of preparing a surface, followed by the application of liquid paint, to provide aesthetic and protective qualities.
Plating A metal surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. One example is Chrome Plating
Powder Coating The process of applying a coating to a surface through the application of a free flowing, dry powder. Typically applied electrostatically and then cured under heat or with ultraviolet light
Textile Processing  
Braiding (textile) Braiding, in textiles, machine or hand method of interlacing three or more yarns or bias-cut cloth strips in such a way that they cross one another and are laid together in diagonal formation, forming a narrow strip of flat or tubular fabric
Coating (textile) Textile coating can be defined as the process of depositing a resin over a textile substrate, on one or two sides
Heat treatment (textile) A method used to burn sizing and other organic materials on the fabric with the purpose of increasing the textile stability
Twisting (textile) Twisting, in yarn and rope production, process that binds fibres or yarns together in a continuous strand, accomplished in spinning or playing operations
Weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth
Yarn extrusion (textile) Synthetic granulates are melted and mixed at a certain temperature and pressure, then extruded to filaments which are created by spinnerets with a certain amount of holes, depending on the final yarn count, the yarn is then fixed on a cooling drum before being put on bobbins by the winder.
Plastic Processing  
3D-Printing Additive manufacturing of a part
Bending Adjusting form by steam/heat
Blow molding Used to form hollow shapes, a plastic tube is fed into a preformed mold. The plastic is heated with air blown into the tube to stretch the tube into the required shape.
calendaring The process of heating plastic sheeting and continuously applying designs or properties to the surface by a roller
Casting (plastic/metal) The process in which a liquid material is poured into a mold, containing a hollow cavity of the desired shape and allowed to solidify
Coating (plastic) Process of applying a coating of liquid polymer to an item by either immersion or dipping
Cutting Removing material by laser, water jet, plasma or similar
Cutting Application of using tools, to apply the required amount of pressure to separate the wood into two sections
Drilling The use of a drill bit to bore a hole into a material
Drilling The use of a drill to bore a hole into a material
EPS Molding (expanded Polystyrene) Polystyrene beads are heated with steam to around 40 times their original size, on meeting the correct temperature and pressure, the beads mature and can be placed in a mold and heated further using steam to form a required shape
Extrusion Plastic feedstock is heated until soft to form one continuous shape
Fibre-reinforced plastic manufacturing Two processes, fibrous material is manufactured and formed, or fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during moulding
Glueing The application of adhesive to a surface in order to affix trims/components to a product
Glueing The application of adhesive to a surface in order to affix trims/components to a product
Injection molding (Plastic) Plastic feedstock are heated until they are soft enough to be injected at pressure into a predefined mould. The plastic then cools in its new shape.
Machining (milling/turning/ routing) Removal and shaping of material by a sharp tool. Either the tool is rotating or the material.
Machining (plastic/metal) The process (see also milling or lathing) in which a material is cut to a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process
Moulding (Trims / Components) The process of manufacturing trims/components by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mould or matrix.
Oiling Surface finishing by using penetrating oil
Painting The process of preparing a surface, followed by the application of liquid paint, delivered via an evaporating solvent to provide aesthetic and protective qualities.
Planing Flattening the surface and or adjust the thickness of a part by a cutting tool.
Polishing/buffing The process of making the surface even and shiny by rubbing the surface with a cloth or similar. With or without an abrasive polishing compound
Pressing (Trims/Components) The application of a pressing force to a material to deform it (either by stretching or bending, etc.) to match the size and shape of the die
Sanding Making the surface even by abrasive removal
Staining (Wood) Preparation of wood followed by the addition of stain to provide aesthetic and protective qualities
Stamping A process used to convert flat sheets into specific shapes using a die under pressure to cut out the shape, usually the final piece. Common in mass production
Vacuum forming Plastic sheets are heated next to a specific shape inside a vacuum forming machine. The vacuum the draws the air from between the soft plastic sheet and the mould forcing the plastic to assume its shape
Varnishing/painting Surface finishing by adding a protective/decorative layer of paint/varnish
Welding (plastic) A fabrication process whereby two or more parts are fused together by means of heat, pressure or both forming a joint as the parts cool.
Foam injection  
Additive manufacturing For example 3D printing
Chalk refinement/crushing The processing of mining magnesium carbonate and processing into the correct particle size for form chalk
SMD (surface mounted device) A surface-mounted device or SMD is an electronic device for which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of the PCB
Prepreg lamination Fibre is impregnated with resin prior to being placed in a mold. When needed, the pre-impregnated sheets are taken, placed in a mold and cured using heat and pressure to form the required shape
RTM Resin transfer molding (carbon fibre) Untreated fibre is placed in a two-part mold; the mold is then sealed and resin is forced under high pressure into the cavity to take the required shape
Wet lay-up (various fibre) Cut fibre is placed in a mold usually by hand, resin is then applied to the material using either a spray gun, a brush or a roller