Garment Washing and Finishing

Garment Washing and Finishing

The following garment washing and garment finishing processes are available in the Higg Product Module. Most processes are measured in cycles, unless otherwise noted. One cycle is considered one application of the unit process.

  • Embroidery should be selected when stitched embroidery is added to the product. The unit of embroidery is “per cm2” and the embroidered area (in square centimeters) should be entered as the amount. Embroidery is also available in the Product Assembly processes; ensure each embroidered area is only accounted for once to avoid double counting. The exact area of complex shapes may be difficult to measure;simple geometric representations (e.g. length x width) are suitable to approximate the total area.
  • Laser Etching should be selected when a laser is used to etch or engrave designs onto a product (usually leather or denim). The unit of laser etching is “per cm2” and the total etched or engraved area (in square centimeters) should be entered as the amount. The exact area of complex shapes may be difficult to measure; simple geometric representations (e.g. length x width) are suitable to approximate the total area. If the product is washed after laser etching, the appropriate wash process (typically Water Only Wash) should be also selected. If the product is minimally spot cleaned, then it is not necessarily to specify a separate washing step.
  • Acid Wash should be selected when a product is washed using acid and pumice stones to create an aged look.
  • Boarding should be selected when products are pressed using heat and pressure into a flat, two-dimensional shape in preparation for packing.
  • Enzyme Wash should be selected when the product is washed using enzymes to create an aged look and/or to create a softer, polished hand feel.
  • Flocking should be selected when a product is decorated using flock (very short fibers) that is attached using an adhesive.
  • Foam or Spray-Dry should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the product using foamed air and a liquid finishing solution. After application, the product is dried but does not involve a (higher temperature) curing step. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. This process is only applicable when the chemical finish is added to the final product, not to a material (processes applied to materials should be captured in the Higg MSI).If a product is known to use a chemical finish but the specific method is unknown, then the Pad-Dry-Cure or Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used. If the product is known to use a Foam or Spray-Dry process but it is unknown if there is a curing step, then the Foam-Dry-Cure or Spray-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Foam-Dry-Cure or Spray-Dry-Cure should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the product using foamed air and a liquid finishing solution. After application, the product is cured at an elevated temperature to give a durable finish as part of the drying process. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. This process is only applicable when the chemical finish is added to the final product, not to a material (processes applied to materials should be captured in the Higg MSI). If a product is known to use a chemical finish but the specific method is unknown, then the Pad-Dry-Cureor Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Pad-Dry or Exhaust-Dry should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the product using a solution bath and rollers to control the wet pick-up rate. After application, the product is dried but does not involve a (higher temperature) curing step. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. This process is only applicable when the chemical finish is added to the final product, not to a material (processes applied to materials should be captured in the Higg MSI). If the product is known to use a Pad-Dry or Exhaust-Dry process but it is unknown if there is a curing step, then the Pad-Dry-Cure or Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Pad-Dry-Cure or Exhaust-Dry-Cure should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the product using a solution bath and rollers to control the wet pick-up rate. After application, the product is cured at an elevated temperature to give a durable finish as part of the drying process. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. This process is only applicable when the chemical finish is added to the final product, not to a material (processes applied to materials should be captured in the Higg MSI).
  • Sueding/Sanding should be selected when the surface of a product is sanded to raise some fibers to create a soft and smooth surface (peaching) or to create localized abrasion patterns (sand blasting).
  • Water Only Wash should be selected when the product is washed in water to help clean it or lightly age it. Washing processes that don’t include acids or enzymes should select Water Only Wash as the most representative process.
  • Weighting or hand building, apparel should be selected when the product is modified to add fullness (bulk or weight) and/or increased stiffness. This is typically done through the addition of hand-building substances, such as starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), vinyl-acetate polymers, polyurethane, thermoset resins, or acrylic co-polymers. Note that the process model for weighting or hand-building currently only captures the impacts associated with mechanical processing and care should be taken when interpreting the impacts of this process.
  • Pressing (ironing) should be selected when steam and pressure are used to remove unwanted creases or wrinkles from products and/or to shape them when desired. The unit of pressing (ironing) is “minute” (the length of time, in minutes, that the product is pressed or ironed).
  • Heat Transfer Foils (large) should be selected when a heat transfer foil is applied to a product and the area of the heat transfer is over 900 square centimeters (30cm x 30cm). All types of heat transfer foils and papers, including metallic, gloss pigment, matte pigment, and holographic papers should use this as the most representative process.
  • Heat Transfer Foils (medium)should be selected when a heat transfer foil is applied to a product and the area of the heat transfer is between 225 and 900 square centimeters (30cm x 30cm). All types of heat transfer foils and papers, including metallic, gloss pigment, matte pigment, and holographic papers should use this as the most representative process.
  • Heat Transfer Foils (small)should be selected when a heat transfer foil is applied to a product and the area of the heat transfer is under 225 square centimeters (15cm x 15cm). All types of heat transfer foils and papers, including metallic, gloss pigment, matte pigment, and holographic papers should use this as the most representative process.
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