Additional Coloration and Finishing

Additional Coloration and Finishing

The Additional Coloration and Finishing production stage covers textile printing and finishing steps. Both mechanical and chemical based finishing processes are included.

  • Brushing/buffing, for textiles should be selected when the surface of a fabric is lightly brushed. The process is used to remove loose threads and short fiber ends from smooth-surfaced fabrics and to remove cut fibers after shearing.
  • Calendering should be selected when the fabric is finished by passing it between heated rollers. This can be used to add a glossy, smooth finish and to control the air permeability of synthetic textiles by slightly melting the surface.
  • Compacting, mechanical should be selected for knitted fabrics when using a compressive treatment in the lengthwise direction to control shrinkage, smoothness, and other functions.
  • Embossing, for textiles should be selected when using a modified calendaring process (heat & pressure imparted by rollers) to create a pattern or graphic on the surface of a fabric. This process should also be used for moiré fabric appearance.
  • Finishing SpinDye® shell PFC-free W/R + water based PU coating (solvent free) should be selected when using a SpinDye® fabric that has been treated with a water repellency treatment and a water-based polyurethane coating on one side.
  • Foam or Spray-Dry should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the fabric using foamed air and a liquid finishing solution. After application, the fabric is dried but does not involve a (higher temperature) curing step. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. If a fabric is known to use a chemical finish but the specific method is unknown, then the Pad-Dry-Cureor Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used. If the fabric is known to use a Foam or Spray-Dry process but it is unknown if there is a curing step, then the Foam-Dry-Cure or Spray-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Foam-Dry-Cure or Spray-Dry-Cure should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the fabric using foamed air and a liquid finishing solution. After application, the fabric is cured at an elevated temperature to give a durable finish as part of the drying process. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. If a fabric is known to use a chemical finish but the specific method is unknown, then the Pad-Dry-Cureor Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Heat sealing, textiles should be selected for synthetic textiles that are heat sealed in a wet bath.
  • Heat setting, textiles, finishing should be selected for woven fabrics that use heat to set the warp and weft yarns and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions in a stenter or tenter machine. This process is also called tentering and crabbing (for wool fabrics).
  • Milling, textiles should be selected for wool textiles that have been felted. Milling is also known as felting and requires moisture, heat, and pressure. It can be performed in both alkaline and acidic conditions and this process should be selected for either type.
  • Napping, mechanical should be selected when bristles or brushes are used to raise the end of fibers to generate a pile. Corduroy, velvet, and fleece are examples of fabrics that have a napping process.
  • Pad-Dry or Exhaust-Dry should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the fabric using a solution bath and rollers to control the wet pick-up rate. After application the fabric is dried but does not involve a (higher temperature) curing step. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable. If the fabric is known to use a Pad-Dry or Exhaust-Dry process but it is unknown if there is a curing step, then the Pad-Dry-Cure or Exhaust-Dry-Cure process should be used.
  • Pad-Dry-Cure or Exhaust-Dry-Cure should be selected when a chemical finish (such as water repellency, stain release, softeners, odor management, or antibacterial treatments) is added to the fabric using a solution bath and rollers to control the wet pick-up rate. After application, the fabric is cured at an elevated temperature to give a durable finish as part of the drying process. If multiple chemical finishes are applied at the same time, this process is still applicable.
  • Pressing/ironing should be selected when steam and pressure are used to remove unwanted creases or wrinkles from fabrics and/or to shape them when desired. It is similar to calendaring but with direct application of steam to the fabric.
  • Printing, burnout should be selected when sulfuric acid is used to “burn” a pattern into the surface of a fabric by dissolving cellulosic materials. It is most commonly used on fabric blends of synthetics and cellulosics.
  • Printing, digital should be selected when a digital printer is used to print ink onto a fabric to create a graphic or pattern. Printed fabrics that use dye sublimation printing (dyes are printed onto transfer paper, which is then transferred to the fabric using heat and pressure) should select this as the best proxy in the Higg MSI.
  • Sanforizing should be selected when a woven fabric is stabilized in the fabric length and width by using a Sanforizer to apply moisture, heat, and pressure. This process is used to control the shrinkage of the fabric.
  • Schreinering should be selected when using heat and pressure (via ribbed rollers) to create a very high fabric lustre. It is similar to Calendaring and
  • Screen printing should be selected when a printing paste is applied to a fabric using a rotary or flat screen before being dried and affixed to the surface of the fabric. Printing pastes including PVC (plastisol), non-PVC (high solids acrylic), and water-based screen-printing inks should all use this process.
  • Shearing should be selected when a raised nap or pile is cut to a uniform height. Depending on blade configuration it can also be used to cut stripes and other fabric patterns by varying surface height. Fabrics that are sheared tend to have been napped first. In this case, Napping, mechanical should also be selected.
  • Sueding/Sanding should be selected when the surface of a fabric is lightly sanded using abrasive rollers. This raises some fibers to create a soft and smooth surface. This process is also known as peaching.
  • Weighting or hand building should be selected when the fabric is modified to add fullness (bulk or weight) and/or increased stiffness. This is typically done through the addition of hand-building substances, such as starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), vinyl-acetate polymers, polyurethane, thermoset resins, or acrylic co-polymers. Note that the process model for weighting or hand-building is currently only capturing the impacts associated with mechanical processing and care should be taken when interpreting the impacts of this process.
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