Raw Material Source

Raw Material Source

Within each of the Textile material types there can be multiple raw material source options available to further customize a material.

If only the general fiber type is known, then the default selection should be left unchanged.

  • Acetylated and regenerated cellulose, from pine, spruce or cotton linters is the default selection for acetate and triacetate fibers and should be selected unless using one of the listed branded acetate or triacetate fibers.
  • Cellulosic Filament Yarn, Naia {Eastman} (includes yarn formation) should be selected when using Naia™ filament yarn. When selecting this option, make sure you update the Yarn Formation Method to “none”.
  • Cellulosic Fiber, Naia {Eastman} should be selected when using Naia™ staple fiber.
  • Cellulosic Filament Yarn, Naia Renew {Eastman} (includes yarn formation)should be selected when using Naia™ Renew (acetyl from recycled waste plastics) filament yarn. When selecting this option, make sure you update the Yarn Formation Method to “none”.
  • Cellulosic Fiber, Naia Renew {Eastman} should be selected when using Naia™ Renew (acetyl from recycled waste plastics) staple fiber.
  • Polyacrylonitrile, fossil fuel based, for textiles is the default selection for acrylic polymer and should be selected for all acrylic fabrics.
  • Radianza Fiber {BIRLA} (includes preparation and coloration) should be selected when using Radianza™ fiber. The impacts shown in this process include preparation and coloration.
  • Alpaca fleece, pasture raised is the default selection for alpaca fibers and should be selected for all alpaca fabrics.
  • Aromatic polyamide, aramids is the default selection for aramid polymer and should be selected for all aramid fabrics.
  • Polyacrilonitrile (PAN), fossil fuel based is the default selection as the raw material source to make carbon fibers. It should be selected for homopolymer polyacrylonitrile and polyacrylonitrile co-polymers.
  • Viscose/Rayon (generic), regenerated cellulose from wood pulp should be selected when the raw material source of the carbon fiber is derived from cellulosic fibers.
  • Cotton fiber, conventional production is the default selection for cotton fabric and should be selected unless using one of the other cotton fiber types identified below. This process represents a global average for conventional cotton production.
  • Cotton fiber, Cotton made in Africa (CmiA) should be selected if the cotton fiber meets the requirements of the Cotton made in Africa program.
  • Cotton fiber, organic should be selected if the cotton fiber meets the requirements of organic certification, such as industry standards including the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) and the Organic Content Standard (OCS).
  • Cotton fiber, recycled {Recover} should be selected only if mechanically recycled cotton fibers from Recover® are being used.
  • Cotton fiber, recycled should be selected when using mechanically recycled cotton fibers, other than when they are from a listed branded option.
  • Spandex fiber {The LYCRA Company}, contains data for yarnformation/spinning is the default selection for spandex and elastane fibers. It should be selected as the best proxy for all spandex and elastane fibers.
  • Creora® bio-based spandex {Hyosung}, (includes yarn formation) should be selected when using Creora® bio-based spandex from Hyosung. The default yarn spinning process is already an empty process and does not need to be updated.
  • Flax fiber (linen), average production is the default selection for flax fiber and should be used unless the specific retting process is known. If the retting process is known but is not dew or warm water retting, then the default selection (average production) should be used.
  • Flax fiber (linen), dew retted should be used if the flax fiber is known to have come from a source that practices dew retting.
  • Flax fiber (linen), warm water retted should be used if the flax fiber is known to have come from a source that uses a warm water retting process.
  • Flax Fiber {Bast Fiber Tech}, Belgium should be used when bast fibers (including flax and hemp) are processed using Bast Fiber Tech’s proprietary wet processing technology to create a refined flax or hemp fiber.
  • Flax hackled long fiber (linen) {European Flax® certified} should be selected when using certified European Flax®.
  • Glass fiber is the default selection for glass fibers and should be selected for all glass fiber fabrics.
 
  • Hemp fiber, average production (long fiber for wet spinning) is the default selection for hemp fiber and should be used unless the specific retting process is known. If the retting process is known but is not dew or warm water retting, then the default selection (average production) should be used.
  • Hemp fiber, dew retted (long fiber for wet spinning) should be used if the hemp fiber is known to have come from a source that practices dew retting.
  • Hemp fiber, warm water retted (long fiber for wet spinning) should be used if the hemp fiber is known to have come from a source that uses a warm water retting process.
  • Agraloop BioFibre (cottonized) {Circular Systems} should be used if the hemp fiber is Agraloop BioFibre™. When selecting this process, the yarn spinning production stage needs to be updated to a “cottonized” yarn spinning process.
  • Jute fibers is the default selection for jute fibers and should be selected for all jute fiber fabrics.
 
  • Lyocell (generic), regenerated cellulose from wood pulp is the default selection for lyocell fibers and should be selected unless using a listed branded lyocell fiber.
  • TENCEL® {Lenzing} should be selected when using Tencel™ Lyocell fibres.
  • Modal (generic), regenerated cellulose from wood pulp is the default selection for modal fibers and should be selected unless using a listed branded modal fiber.
  • TENCEL™ Modal {Lenzing} should be selected when using Tencel™ Modal fibres, unless the fibers are dope dyed, in which case TENCEL™ Modal Eco Color (color/black) {Lenzing}should be selected instead.
  • TENCEL™ Modal Eco Color (color/black) {Lenzing} should be selected when using Tencel™ Modal fibres that are dope dyed. This includes Lenzing™ Modal Black and Modal Color. Note that this process stage does not include the impacts of the dope dyeing process and the Dope Dyeing for TENCEL™ Modal Eco Color (color/black) {Lenzing} process needs to be selected for the Coloration Production Stage.
  • Livaeco™ Modal Fibre {BIRLA} should be selected when using Livaeco™ Modal fiber from Birla Cellulose.
  • Nylon 6, fossil fuel based, for textile production is the default selection for nylon polymer. Nylon 6 is the most common type of nylon used in textiles and should be selected unless a different nylon polymer type is more representative, as described in this section.
  • Nylon, mechanically recycled should be selected if the nylon polymer has come from a recycled source, except in instances where the supplier is known and noted in this section. This process should be selected for both mechanically recycled and chemically recycled nylon, as this is currently the closest proxy available.
  • Nylon 6.6, fossil fuel based, for textile production should be selected if the nylon polymer is nylon 6,6. Nylon 6,6 is manufactured from two different monomers, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. This process should be selected for all nylon 6,6 polymer manufacturing except where the nylon 6,6 manufacturer is known and noted in this section.
  • Nylon 6.6, recycled (Fulgar Q-NOVA- contains data for yarn formation/spinning) should be selected when using Q-NOVA® recycled nylon 6,6 from Fulgar®. When selecting this option, make sure you update the Yarn Formation Method to “none”.
  • Nylon 4.10, bio-based, for textile production should be selected when using bio-based nylon 4,10. This process represents the closest suitable proxy for bio-based nylon in the Higg MSI, especially for bio-based nylons using inputs derived from the castor bean plant (Ricinus sp.).
  • Nylon 6.6, Amni Soul Eco {Solvay Group}, Brazil should be selected when using Amni Soul Eco® nylon 6,6 developed by the Solvay Group.
  • Ultramid B {BASF} should be selected when using Ultramid® Polyamide from BASF, unless using the Biomass Balance version, in which case Ultramid B BMB (biomass balance) {BASF} should be selected instead.
  • Ultramid B BMB (biomass balance) {BASF} should be selected when using BASF’s certified biomass balance version of Ultramid® Polyamide
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), fossil fuel based is the default selection for PET polymer. PET is the most common type of polyester used in textiles and should be selected unless a different polyester polymer type is more representative, as described in this section. This process models PET manufacturing via the ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid synthesis route.
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), mechanically recycled, for textilesshould be selected if the PET polymer is converted from mechanically recycled PET bottle flakes to recycled PET pellets before being converted into PET fiber. If the specific recycling technology is unknown, this mechanical recycling process is the most likely processing type and should be selected.
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) {Toray}, partially bio-based should be selected if the PET polymer is manufactured by Toray and is partially (30%) bio-based (ethylene glycol derived from sugarcane molasses). This process is currently the best proxy for all bio-based PET in the Higg MSI and should be selected for any bio-based PET.
  • Ground to Good™- recycled PET Flakeshould be selected if the PET polymer is known to be Thread International’s Ground to Good™ recycled PET.
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), semi-mechanically recycled should be selected if the PET polymer is converted from mechanically recycled PET bottle flakes to recycled PET pellets before being converted into PET fiber. In this process, an additional ethylene glycol treatment is used to purify the polymer. 
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), chemically (BHET) recycled should be selected if the PET polymer is chemically depolymerized via a glycolysis process. In this production method, Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) will be the primary intermediate oligomer that is produced. After depolymerization, the BHET is filtered and re-polymerized back into PET. This process may be selected for any PET chemical recycling where a glycolysis reaction is the primary depolymerization route.
  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), chemically (methanolysis) recycled, for textiles should be selected if the PET polymer is chemically depolymerized via a methanolysis process. In this production method, PET is converted into dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol monomers. These are then re-polymerized back into PET.  This process is the best proxy for PET chemical recycling that uses hydrolysis (depolymerization to terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol) and other alcoholysis depolymerization routes. This process should also be selected for polyester raw material content that is known to be chemically recycled but does not have the specific technology disclosed.
  • LYCRA® T400 EcoMade Fiber {The LYCRA Company}, (includes yarn formation) should be selected when using T400 EcoMade bicomponent stretch polyester (elasterell-p) from The LYCRA Company. This process is the closest proxy for all elasterell-p polyester and may be selected when using any elasterell-p fiber. The impacts shown in this process include yarn formation and Melt spinning with texturing, {The LYCRA Company} empty process, impacts contained in raw material process) should be selected as the Yarn Formation Method.
  • Repreve® Yarn, {Unifi Manufacturing Inc} (includes extrusion/spinning + texturing) should be selected when using REPREVE® Polyester Yarn from Unifi Manufacturing Inc. The impacts shown in this process include Extrusion/spinning and texturizing. Extrusion/spinning and texturizing {REPREVE®} (empty process) should be selected as the Yarn Formation Method.
  • Repreve® Resin (chip), {Unifi Manufacturing Inc} should be selected when using REPREVE® resin [chip] from Unifi Manufacturing Inc.
  • High density polyethylene (HDPE), fossil fuel based is the default process selection for PE fabric and should be selected when using HDPE or when the specific grade of polyethylene is unknown.
  • Low density polyethylene (LDPE), fossil fuel based should be selected when using an LDPE polymer.
  • Polylactic acid (PLA), bio-based, for textile sis the default selection for polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and should be selected for all polylactic acid (PLA) fabrics.
  • Isotactic polypropylene (PP), Fossil fuel based is the default selection for polypropylene polymer and should be selected for all conventional production.
  • Polypropylene (PP), recycled, for textile should be selected if using mechanically recycled polypropylene polymer.
  • Sorona polymer {DuPont}, bio-based is the default selection for PTT polymer. This process is currently the best proxy for all sources of PTT polymer in the Higg MSI.
  • Thermoset polyurethane (PU), fossil fuel based, for textiles is the default selection for polyurethane polymer and should be selected for all PU fabrics unless using Freeflex™ TPU Resin.
  • Freeflex™ TPU Resin {BASF} for textile should only be selected when known to be using the Freeflex™ TPU resin from BASF.
  • Silk, raw, from silkworm is the default selection for raw silk and should be selected for silk fabrics.
  • Viscose/Rayon (generic), regenerated cellulose from wood pulp is the default selection for viscose rayon fibers and should be selected unless using a listed branded viscose fiber or the pulp source is known to be bamboo.
  • LENZING™ Viscose, Indonesia should be selected when using viscose fiber produced by Lenzing™ in Indonesia.
  • LENZING™ ECOVERO™ Viscose  should be selected when using ECOVERO™ viscose fiber produced by Lenzing™. This process is representative for all ECOVERO™ production (Europe and China).
  • Regenerated cellulose, from bamboo should be selected for viscose rayon fibers are manufactured using cellulose pulp derived from bamboo fiber.
  • Viscose Staple Fibre {BIRLA}, India should be selected when using viscose staple fiber produced by Birla Cellulose in India.
  • LivaEco VSF {BIRLA), India should be selected when using LivaEco traceable viscose fiber produced by Birla Cellulose in India.
  • Livaeco™ Spun-dyed Viscose Staple Fiber {BIRLA} (includes coloration) should be selected when using dope dyed Livaeco™ fiber from Birla Cellulose. When selecting this process, the dyeing process should be updated to “Dope dyeing for Livaeco Spun-dyed Viscose Staple Fiber {BIRLA} (empty process) to avoid double counting impacts”
  • Purocel Eco Viscose {BIRLA Cellulose} should be selected when using Purocel™ Eco Viscose fiber produced by Birla Cellulose.
  • Wool, from sheep, fine-medium and superfine, Australia, for textile is the default selection for wool fibers and should be used unless using recycled wool fiber.
  • Wool fiber, recycled from waste textile, for textiles should be selected when using mechanically recycled wool fiber. This process is modelled from waste textiles and includes collection and processing impacts.
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