Textile Formation

The Textile Formation Production Stage has different process options depending on material type. Broadly, there are three options for Textile Formation: Knit, Woven, and Non-Woven. Even without detailed fabric information, it is usually possible to select a Textile Formation option and to customize materials accordingly.

If the yarn details of a fabric are not known but the Textile Formation type (Knit, Woven, Non-Woven) can be determined, it is recommended to update the process selection from the default if necessary. For instance, a woven fabric should be updated from the default Knitting, 200 DTEX-180 denier-30/1 Ne-50 Nm process to the Weaving, 200 DTEX-180 denier-30/1 Ne-50 Nm process.

  • Knitting processes are the default selection for MSI example materials. Knitting processes should be selected when the fabric is a knit construction (made up of a yarns that are looped continuously to produce a braided look). Knitting should be selected for all knit types: single jersey, interlock, rib, double knit, warp knit, jacquard, etc.
  • Weaving processes should be selected when the fabric is a woven construction (made up of yarns that are crossed at right angles to each other). Weaving should be selected for all woven types: plain weave, basket weave, dobby, ribs, twills, herringbones, etc.
  • Non-Woven processes should be selected when yarns are oriented and then bonded together through mechanical or chemical means.

Weaving and Knitting Processes with Common Structure

Most Weaving and Knitting Processes share a common structure, showing the textile formation type (Knitting or Weaving) followed by a yarn count (size). These yarn counts follow the same structure as the Yarn Formation Method processes and the same overarching method can be used to select the correct process option when the fabric yarn size does not exactly match the process options:

Actual Yarn Count (Range)Higg MSI Knitting/Weaving Process
Yarns below
65DTEX – 58 denier – 91/1 Ne – 154 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (45 DTEX-41 denier-130/1 Ne-222 Nm)

66DTEX– 59 denier – 90/1 Ne – 153 Nm

to

110DTEX – 99 denier – 54/1 Ne – 91 Nm

[Knitting/Weaving] (70 DTEX-63 denier-84/1 Ne-143 Nm)
111DTEX – 100 denier –53/1 Ne – 90 Nm
to
144DTEX – 130 denier – 41/1 Ne – 69 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (120 DTEX-108 denier-49/1 Ne-83 Nm)
145DTEX–131 denier –40/1 Ne – 68 Nm
to
166DTEX–150 denier – 35/1 Ne – 60 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (150 DTEX-135 denier-40/1 Ne-67 Nm)
167DTEX–151 denier –34/1 Ne – 59 Nm
to
194DTEX–175 denier –30/1 Ne – 51 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (170 DTEX-153 denier-34/1 Ne-59 Nm)
195DTEX–176 denier –29/1 Ne – 50 Nm
to
240DTEX–216 denier –25/1 Ne – 42 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (200 DTEX-180 denier-30/1 Ne-50 Nm)
241DTEX–217 denier –24/1 Ne – 41 Nm
to
290DTEX–261 denier –20/1 Ne – 34 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (250 DTEX-225 denier-24/1 Ne-40 Nm)
291DTEX–262 denier –20/1 Ne – 34Nm
to
324DTEX–292 denier –18/1 Ne – 31 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (300 DTEX-270 denier-20/1 Ne-33 Nm)
325DTEX–293 denier –18/1 Ne – 31 Nm
to
362DTEX–326 denier –16/1 Ne – 28 Nm
[Knitting/Weaving] (330 DTEX-297 denier-18/1 Ne-30 Nm)
363DTEX–327 denier –16/1 Ne – 28 Nm
and above
[Knitting/Weaving] (370 DTEX-333 denier-16/1 Ne-27 Nm)

When using a plied yarn, the effective (final) yarn size should be used to determine the most appropriate Textile Formation rather than the size of individual yarn strand as is used in Yarn Formation Method.

Example:
A fabric is knit using a 72/2s (Ne) yarn, denoting a plied yarn of two strands with each strand having a yarn count of 72 Ne. As described previously in the example in the previous Yarn Formation Method section, the Yarn Formation Method should use the Spinning […] (70 DTEX-63 denier-84/1 Ne-143 Nm) process. However, the effective yarn size is equivalent to a 36/1s (Ne) yarn. Therefore, the knitting process that should be selected is Knitting, (150 DTEX-135 denier-40/1 Ne-67 Nm).

The same equation that is used to determine the effective yarn count for the Yarn Formation Method can be used to determine the effective Yarn Count when selecting your process for a Textile Formation process. This involves determining the average, by weight, of the yarns:

Example:
A woven fabric has the following yarn content:

45%Polyester (75D/36F)+ 30%Polyester (150D/48F)+ 25%Polyester (30D/01F)

Taking the weighted average of these yarns, the following single equivalent yarn size can be used:
(75D)*0.45 + (150D)*0.30 + (30D)*.25 = 86D

86D (denier) is in middle of the range from the second row of the example table and the following MSI yarn size should be selected: Weaving, (70 DTEX-63 denier-84/1 Ne-143 Nm)

Plied yarns should be accounted for before using this formula.

When using a basket weave, each yarn is inserted separately and so should not be treated as a plied yarn. If a 2×2 basket weave uses 2 x 150D yarns to give an appearance more similar to a 300D x 300D woven fabric, the appropriate process selection is still based on the effective individual yarn size (150D).

This approximation is acceptable for most yarn size combinations without introducing a difference in the closest MSI process. Since the weaving and knitting impacts are not linear with regards to yarn size, a more representative equation is to consider the inverse of yarn size. For the above example: (1/(1/75)*0.45+(1/150)*0.30+(1/30)*.25) = 61D. Even with this example, which has very different yarn sizes, the MSI yarn size that would be selected is Spinning […] (70 DTEX-63 denier-84/1 Ne-143 Nm).

Other Knitting and Weaving Processes

  • Knitting, circular (200 DTEX-180 denier-30/1 Ne), cotton should be selected when using a knitted cotton fabric with a yarn size of 200DTEX. For other yarn sizes the most appropriate process should be determined using the common structure for knitting and weaving described previously.
  • Weaving, (150 DTEX-135 denier-40/1 Ne- 67 Nm), Cotton (twill fabric) should be selected when using a woven cotton fabric with a yarn size of 200DTEX. For other yarn sizes the most appropriate process should be determined using the common structure for knitting and weaving described previously.
  • Weaving {Toray}, (polyester filament- 167 DTEX- 150 denier- 35/1 Ne- 6 Nm) should be selected when using a woven polyester fabric known to be manufactured by Toray, with a yarn size of 150 denier. For other yarn sizes the most appropriate process should be determined using the common structure for knitting and weaving described previously.
  • Weaving, water jet loom {SpinDye®}, (83 DTEX- 75 den- 12 Nm) should be selected when using a woven fabric known to be manufactured by SpinDye®, with a yarn size of 75 denier. For other yarn sizes the most appropriate process should be determined using the common structure for knitting and weaving described previously.
  • Weaving, for silk should be selected when using a woven silk fabric. This is the default process selection for silk fabric.

Non-Woven Processes

  • Non-woven, dry laid is the default process selection for Glass fiber fabric and should be used when constructing non-woven fabrics from glass fibers.
  • Non-woven, needle punching, textiles should be selected for fabrics where fibers are mechanically oriented and then bonded together by punching with thousands of barbed felting needles that are repeatedly passed in and out of the fiber web.
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